Do you want to implement Lean on your project? If so, you must specify it. That does not mean you have to pay extra for it, although there are some more upfront costs when running a lean project. Really, you are moving some small costs up front to prevent massive contingency usage later. Here are some examples of things you can include in your exhibits, work orders, work authorizations, or contracts to buy for the behaviors you want:
Cleanliness will be real time for all crews onsite. Workers and crews will keep their areas clean and swept to support a safe and productive work environment. The focus will be on the habits of the workers, and not simply cleanup at the end of the day. Workers and crews will be trained on cleaning as they go, and not allowing things to hit the floor. They will be expected to stay clean and organized so they can achieve better quality, better production, and a safer work environment. No composite cleanup crews will be used on the project for any contractor. If a worker or crew makes a mess, they will be asked to stop and clean it and work with better habits moving forward. Cleanup at the end of the day will still be encouraged, but it will be enforced as the crews work.
Deliveries of materials shall be coordinated to the right inventory buffer. Too much material inventory will not be allowed, and zero inventory is not productive. The right sized inventory buffers for your scope shall be coordinated with the superintendent. Do not assume deliveries will be brought out all-at-once, by building, or by floor. Deliveries by default should be by sequence area or Takt zone and approved by the superintendent. Staging at the place of work should not be assumed and, again, must be approved beforehand. In some instances, deliveries may need to be broken up to accommodate the materials arriving just-in-time to be installed within the proper lead time.
In summary, materials can be coordinated to arrive onsite from the vendor to the place of work, or materials can be coordinated to arrive to a laydown area and then to the place of work. Material inventory will only be allowed at the place of work according to the agreed-upon inventory buffer (Shown by “amount” by “time”). These buffers will be shown on the schedule or in the procurement log.
Worker & Foremen Huddles:
All workers will attend a daily worker huddle at the start of the day to communicate safety items and the plan for the day. Attendance is mandatory. It is expected that the content shared in the huddle will communicate items to workers that will keep them safer and more productive throughout the project. Additionally, trade foremen are required to plan the next day with the group and coordinate deliveries, work areas, safety, labor, and material laydown. Attendance is mandatory and crucial to enabling workers in a safe and productive manner.
25 Minute Daily Setup:
Workers will be expected to spend the first portion of their day preparing the work of the crew. The recommended agenda is shown below:
Consider a 15 to 25-minute duration for all craft to setup their day. Provide them 5s & 8 waste cards and encourage habits daily.
- 5 min worker huddle with the entire site.
- 15 min.
- Walk area of work
- Pre-task plans
- 5s area
- Sort (Seiri)
- Set in order (Seiton)
- Shine/Sweep (Seiso)
- Standardize (Seiketsu)
- Sustain/Self-discipline (Shitsuke)
- Setup work area for success by eliminating the 8 wastes
- Inventory – Storing parts, pieces, documentation ahead of requirements
- Over production – Making more than is IMMEDIATELY required
- Transport – Moving people, products & information
- Motion – Bending, turning, reaching, lifting
- Waiting – For parts, information, instructions, equipment
- Over processing – Tighter tolerances or higher-grade materials than are necessary
- Defects – Rework, scrap, incorrect documentation
- Skills – Underutilizing capabilities, delegating tasks with inadequate training
- Gather all tools and needed equipment
- Safe off work areas
The point of this time is to ensure the workers are all prepared for the day with tools, equipment, instructions, materials, and a place to work.
QC Checklists & Inspections by Foremen:
Each phase of work shall have a checklist or Feature of Work board with visuals before crews go to work. A representative from each trade will be responsible to research the plans, specs, codes, safety manual, and any other pertinent information before the pre-install. After the meeting, the information is to be summarized and formatted before the work begins. Each crew is to have with them a quality checklist for the work or a visual that has been reviewed by the general contractor. Every crew, every day, has a pre-task plan and quality expectations.
iPad for Foremen:
Foremen will be expected to view the plan for the day, scheduling software, a project management software, and other project management applications. Each foreman has an iPad for his or her work.
Zero Tolerance Systems:
It is said, “the culture of any organization is shaped by the worst behavior the leader is willing to tolerate.” On our projects, because of our respect for each person, we will have a respectful and caring “zero tolerance” policy on certain items that are part of, and completely consistent with, our safety program.
Communication and enforcement of our safety program provides equal opportunity for everyone to work and be respected.
The following are items in which we use a “zero tolerance” approach as part of our efforts to ensure enforcement:
- Any violation of safety that is contrary to site standards, project orientation, and OSHA basic standards.
- Anything that is indicative of bad behavior, bad attitudes, not paying attention, or not being trained for the task.
- Any violation that is high risk that creates imminent danger to persons or property (i.e. ladder use, electrical, fall protection, confined space, excavations violations, etc.).
- Not wearing P.P.E. including a hard hat, safety vest, safety glasses, and proper protective clothing. This is a very important issue. Please know that wearing proper P.P.E. (and specifically safety glasses) has a psychological effect. It sets the standard of behavior onsite. If someone will not wear their safety glasses, they likely will not wear their fall protection properly. The important standards will be kept like the minimum standards are.
- Clean jobsite and daily housekeeping including proper staging of materials in approved and designated locations.
- You can expect that we, as the general contractor, will provide this safe and productive workplace. In turn, we will require your efforts also by supporting the this “zero tolerance” and we will do this by:
- The site orientation will explain this approach to everyone.
- Everyone onsite must set an example and enforce the policy.
- We will hold huddles daily which will remind people and train them on the standards.
- If someone is observed being unsafe, we will say to them, “Because I care about your safety, we need to give you time to focus, re-train, or plan the work. So, let’s have you go through orientation in the office, or receive training from your supervisor before continuing work, and you can come back once oriented or re-trained. (Unless it is a major violation)”
- We will send an email to that person’s company explaining why that person was paused for their own safety and the benefit of their family, ask that the person be re-trained, and offer them an opportunity to come back once orientation. (Unless it is a major violation).
- We will log the name and violation on a log to track repeat offenders that cannot come back.
- If it is minor, they come back through orientation.
- If they do it again, they cannot come back.
- If it is a serious violation that is high risk, they cannot come back.
We know that each person must make a conscious effort to be safe for themselves and all those around them. So, again, why do we take a zero-tolerance approach? It is based on respect for people. We take care of and treat people well because we respect them. We are safe because we respect all people and their families. We provide adequate facilities, bathrooms, lunchrooms, and treat people fairly because we respect them. We keep perfectly clean job sites because we respect the productivity of other trades. We do not tolerate safety violations because we respect people’s lives and the well-being of their families. We do not tolerate unsafe behaviors because we respect people.
All foremen must be approved by the onsite team. Foremen must comply with the following requirements, or they will be removed from the project.
- Bring materials to the site, “Just in Time!”
- Enforce site safety rules from Safety Manual
- Keep crew operations clean and organized 100% of the time. Do not wait until the end of the day.
- Do not let materials touch the ground. Either new materials or trash.
- Spend time every morning teaching about the 8 wastes, 5 S-ing, and lean concepts. Allow crews time every morning to get their day setup, clean, and organized.
- Participate as a project team member in the last planner meetings and morning huddles.
- Encourage your crews to come up with lean improvement ideas.
- Maintain parking for your company and ensure there is no impact to the customer.
- Material deliveries for equipment and supplies will be posted in a visible location for the entire team to see. All deliveries will be scheduled per jobsite rules.
- Every foreman supervising in the field will attend a pre-install meeting before commencing the Feature of Work and prepare for the meeting by reading all associated plans, specifications, and shop drawings. The product of this review will be a subcontractor provided checklist of critical quality items pertaining to the installation. If the foreman or superintendent does not come prepared, the meeting will be summarily canceled and rescheduled as soon as a commitment can be made to properly research the scope.
- Contractor will participate in phase planning sessions to develop the overall schedule.
- Foremen will identify and help the team remove roadblocks ahead of the work.
- Foremen will have a good attitude and partner with the project team.
Foremen by Geographical Area:
The project will be broken up into geographical areas for operational control. Each area will be supervised with a superintendent and field engineer. Foremen huddles and morning huddles may be done separately. As such, each trade must provide a dedicated foreman or lead for these areas to communicate, coordinate, and schedule work.
The general contractor and all trade partners will be graded weekly based on non-subjective criteria. The score will be scaled from F to A based on performance. This score will be communicated to the owner, all internal company leaders, all trade leaders and will be posted in the project conference room. The purpose of this is to manage expectations as a group and elevate everyone to high levels of performance. It is expected contractually that onsite teams reach a “B” or higher within 6 weeks of arriving on site.
Worker & Foreman safety training:
All workers will be OSHA 10 trained to be onsite. All foremen will be OSHA 30 trained to be onsite. If OSHA 10 trained workers are not available, an OSHA 30 trained foreman must be onsite with that crew 100% of the time.
Scheduling & Delivering Materials:
Material deliveries will be scheduled on the project delivery software or on the delivery board on a first come first serve basis. Delivery times will be held. If deliveries arrive on the project out of sequence or not on time, they will be re-routed to a designated queuing area. All deliveries will be coordinated so they are offloaded to the proper area. Forklift operators, hoist operators, and crane operators will only stage per the coordinated logistics plan for the day. All materials will be packaged on color-coded pallets, on wheels, or otherwise mobile.
This project will use Takt construction. It is expected that each contractor participates in pull plan sessions to create the Takt sequences and that each contractor will follow the Takt Production System explained in the book Takt Planning & Integrated Control. This system also requires the participation of trade foremen in the Trade Partner Weekly Tactical meeting and Daily Foremen Huddles. Each contractor shall work within their zone within their Takt time.